This e-book has been edited from the printed version. The greatest challenge of this edition is to seek the Amazon's future based on knowledge of the past. This book presents in chronological and synthetic scales the main historical facts, characters, technological innovations and public policies that struck the history of agriculture in the Amazon, from the presence of the first Paleo-Indians to the present. With the publication of this edition, Embrapa Eastern Amazon is fulfilling a great and important task to meet the challenges of promoting sustainable development of this strategic region for Brazil and the world. Besides photographic record of the facts, the edition contains six infographics with the timeline of scientific and technological achievements, transfer of genetic resources, public policies, great works and development of research institutions.